A field bioassay approach to determining tributyltin toxicity to oysters in California

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Stephenson, M. (1991). A field bioassay approach to determining tributyltin toxicity to oysters in California. Marine Environmental Research, 32(1), 51-59. doi:10.1016/0141-1136(91)90033-5
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TitleA field bioassay approach to determining tributyltin toxicity to oysters in California
AuthorsM. Stephenson
AbstractField experiments were conducted with oysters, Crassostrea gigas to determine the toxicity of tributyltin (TBT). Oysters were transplanted to over one hundred stations distributed in 25 marinas usually in a transect of four or five stations along a gradient next to vessels extending to station locations distant from vessels. In almost every bay in California there are many vessels, the TBT levels in water are > 50 ng/liter (parts per trillion), and the oysters exhibit a chambering response similar to the chambering response that was indicative of the destruction of the oyster industry in France. Although oysters were transplanted to stations that had extreme environmental conditions (near sewer and petroleum refinery discharges) no evidence of chambering was observed indicating that the chambering response does not occur with every type of environmental stress. In addition, oysters transplanted to a marina that had been abandoned for 18 months did not show a chambering response, whereas those transplanted in marinas that had vessels always showed a chambering response. The use of field techniques in determining toxicity responses worked in this case but the response could have been more clearly defined if more stations were added in each marina and the dose response determined on a marina by marina basis. More TBT measurements in water would have also helped to refine the dose-response relationship. A first estimate of a toxicity value can be determined from these data to be less than 40 ng/liter.
JournalMarine Environmental Research
Date1991
Start page51
End page59
ISSN01411136
Subjectstributyltin, animal experiment, bioassay, conference paper, dose response, nonhuman, oyster, toxicity, united states, USA, California, Crassostrea gigas

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