Alongcoast structure and interannual variability of seasonal midshelf water properties and velocity in the Northern California Current System

Hickey, B., Geier, S., Kachel, N., Ramp, S., Kosro, P. M., & Connolly, T. (2016). Alongcoast structure and interannual variability of seasonal midshelf water properties and velocity in the Northern California Current System, 121(10), 7408-7430. doi:10.1002/2015JC011424
TitleAlongcoast structure and interannual variability of seasonal midshelf water properties and velocity in the Northern California Current System
AuthorsB. Hickey, S. Geier, N. Kachel, S. Ramp, M. Kosro, T. Connolly
AbstractMoored sensors were maintained for ∼5 years on the northern California Current System (CCS) midshelf. The alongcoast sensor array spanned the area of influence of the plume from the Columbia River, several submarine canyons, as well as a coastal promontory where the equatorward coastal jet frequently separates from the shelf. Upwelling-favorable wind stress magnitude decreases poleward by more than a factor of three over the latitudinal range and shelf width varies by a factor of two. In spite of the alongcoast structure in setting, both seasonal and interannual patterns in subsurface layer water properties were remarkably similar at all sites. Higher in the water column, freshwater forcing was substantial. Because of the near surface freshwater input, seasonal sea surface and subsurface temperatures were almost perfectly out of phase in the northernmost CCS, with a mid water column inversion in winter. Year to year differences in subsurface layer wintertime water properties were similar to spatial and temporal patterns of wind stress variability: little alongcoast structure except in salinity, but pronounced interannual differences strongly related to local wind stress. Summertime wind and subsurface property patterns were the opposite of those in winter: pronounced alongcoast wind stress structure, but little or no alongcoast or interannual variability in water properties, and only a weak relationship to local wind stress. Summertime interannual water property variability, including source waters, was shown to be more consistent with “remote forcing” via larger scale wind stress rather than with local wind stress, particularly in the northernmost CCS. © 2016. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.
Start page7408
End page7430
SubjectsCalifornia Current, coastal, interannual variation, seasonal cycles, shelf and slope, upwelling
NoteArticle, References: Allen, J.S., Newberger, P.A., Federiuk, J., Upwelling circulation on the Oregon continental shelf. Part I. Response to idealized forcing (1995) J. Phys. Oceanogr., 25, pp. 1843-1865; Bakun, A., (1975) Daily and weekly upwelling indices, west coast of North America, , 1967–1973,, NOAA Tech. Rep. 16, NMFS-SSRF-693, U.S. Dep. of Commer., Washington, D. C; Barnes, C.A., Duxbury, A.C., Morse, B.A., Circulation and selected properties of the Columbia River effluent at sea (1972) The Columbia River Estuary and Adjacent Ocean Waters, pp. 41-80. , in, edited by, A. T. Pruter, D. L. Alverson, Univ. of Wash. Press, Seattle; Barth, J.A., Pierce, S.D., Smith, R.L., A separating coastal upwelling jet at Cape Blanco, Oregon and its connection to the California Current System (2000) Deep Sea Res., Part II, 47, pp. 783-810; Battisti, D.S., Hickey, B.M., Application of remote wind-forced coastal trapped wave theory to the Oregon and Washington coasts (1984) J. Phys. Oceanogr., 14, pp. 887-903; Chapman, D.C., On the influence of stratification and continental shelf and slope topography on the dispersion of subinertial coastally trapped waves (1983) J. Phys. Oceanogr., 13 (9), pp. 1641-1652; Chapman, D.C., Application of wind-forced, long, coastal-trapped wave theory along the California coast (1987) J. Geophys. Res., 92 (C2), pp. 1798-1816; Connolly, T.P., Hickey, B.M., Regional impact of submarine canyons during seasonal upwelling (2014) J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 119, pp. 953-975; Connolly, T.P., Hickey, B.M., Shulman, I., Thomson, R.E., Coastal trapped waves, alongshore pressure gradients, and the California Undercurrent (2014) J. Phys. Oceanogr., 44, pp. 319-342; Denbo, D.W., Allen, J.S., The large-scale response to atmospheric forcing of shelf currents and coastal sea level off the west coast of North America: May–July 1981 and 1982 (1987) J. Geophys. Res., 92 (C2), pp. 1757-1782; Fairall, C.W., Bradley, E.F., Hare, J.E., Grachev, A.A., Edson, J.B., Bulk parameterization of air-sea fluxes: Updates and verification for the COARE algorithm (2003) J. Clim., 16, pp. 571-591; Foreman, M.G.G., Crawford, W.R., Cherniawsky, J.Y., Henry, R.F., Tarbotton, M.R., A high-resolution assimilating tidal model for the northeast Pacific Ocean (2000) J. Geophys. Res., 105 (C12), pp. 28,629-28,651; Freeland, H.J., Denman, K.L., A topographically controlled upwelling center off southern Vancouver Island (1982) J. Mar. Res., 40, pp. 1069-1093; García-Berdeal, I., Hickey, B.M., Kawase, M., Influence of wind stress and ambient flow on a high discharge river plume (2002) J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 107 (C9), p. 3130; Giddings, S.N., MacCready, P., Hickey, B.M., Banas, N.S., Davis, K.A., Siedlecki, S.A., Trainer, V.L., Connolly, T.P., Hindcasts of potential harmful algal bloom transport pathways on the Pacific Northwest coast (2014) J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 119, pp. 2439-2461; Goericke, R., The state of the California Current, 2004–2005: Still cool (2005) CALCOFI Rep, pp. 32-71. , Scripps Inst. of Oceanogr, San Diego, Calif; Haugerud, R.A., (1999) Digital elevation model (DEM) of Cascadia, latitude 39N–53N, longitude 116W–133W,, Open File Rep., , 99-369, U.S. Geol. Surv., Reston, Va; Hickey, B.M., The California current system—hypotheses and facts (1979) Prog. Oceanogr., 8, pp. 191-279; Hickey, B.M., The fluctuating longshore pressure gradient on the Pacific Northwest shelf: A dynamical analysis (1984) J. Phys. Oceanogr., 14 (2), pp. 276-293; Hickey, B.M., Patterns and processes of circulation over the Washington continental shelf and slope, in (1989) Coastal Oceanography of Washington and Oregon, pp. 41-115. , edited by, M. R. Landry, B. M. Hickey, Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands; Hickey, B.M., Coastal Oceanography of Western North America from the tip of Baja California to Vancouver Island, in (1998) The Sea, 11, pp. 345-393. , edited by, K. H. Brink, A. R. Robinson, John Wiley, N. Y; Hickey, B.M., Banas, N.S., Oceanography of the U.S. Pacific Northwest coastal ocean and estuaries with application to coastal ecology (2003) Estuaries, 26 (4), pp. 1010-1031; Hickey, B.M., Banas, N.S., Why is the Northern California Current System so productive? (2008) Oceanography, 21 (4), pp. 90-107; Hickey, B.M., Pietrafesa, L.J., Jay, D.A., Boicourt, W.C., The Columbia River Plume Study: Subtidal variability of the velocity and salinity fields (1998) J. Geophys. Res., 103 (C5), pp. 10,339-10,368; Hickey, B.M., Dobbins, E.L., Allen, S.E., Local and remote forcing of currents and temperature in the central Southern California Bight (2003) J. Geophys. Res., 108 (C3), p. 3081; Hickey, B., Geier, S., Kachel, N., MacFadyen, A., A bi-directional river plume: The Columbia in summer (2005) Cont. Shelf Res., 25, pp. 1631-1656; Hickey, B., MacFadyen, A., Cochlan, W., Kudela, R., Bruland, K., Trick, C., Evolution of chemical, biological, and physical water properties in the northern California Current in 2005: Remote or local wind forcing? (2006) Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, p. L22S02; Hickey, B., McCabe, R., Geier, S., Dever, E., Kachel, N., Three interacting freshwater plumes in the northern California Current System (2009) J. Geophys. Res., 114, p. C00B03; Hickey, B.M., River Influences on Shelf Ecosystems: Introduction and synthesis (2010) J. Geophys. Res., 115, p. C00B17; Hickey, B.M., Trainer, V.L., Kosro, P.M., Adams, N.G., Connolly, T.P., Kachel, N.B., Geier, S.L., A springtime source of toxic Pseudo-nitzschia cells on razor clam beaches in the Pacific Northwest (2013) Harmful Algae, 25, pp. 1-14; Huyer, A., Coastal upwelling in the California current system (1983) Prog. Oceanogr., 12, pp. 259-284; Huyer, A., (1990) Shelf circulation, in, The Sea, Ocean Eng. Sci., 9, pp. 423-466. , edited by, B. Le Mehaute, D. M. Hanes, John Wiley, N. Y; Huyer, A., Preface to special section on enhanced Subarctic influence on the California Current, 2002 (2003) Geophys. Res. Lett., 30 (15), p. 8019; Huyer, A., Kosro, P.M., Lentz, S.J., Beardsley, R.C., Poleward flow in the California Current system (1989) Poleward Flows Along Eastern Ocean Boundaries, Coastal Estuarine Stud. 34, pp. 142-159. , in, edited by, S. Neshyba, Springer, N. Y; Huyer, A., Fleischbein, J.H., Keister, J., Kosro, P.M., Perlin, N., Smith, R.L., Wheeler, P.A., Two coastal upwelling domains in the northern California Current system (2005) J. Mar. Res., 63 (5), pp. 901-929; Huyer, A., Wheeler, P.A., Strub, P.T., Smith, R.L., Letelier, R., Kosro, P.M., The Newport line off Oregon–Studies in the North East Pacific (2007) Prog. Oceanogr., 75 (2), pp. 126-160; Kalnay, E., The NCEP/NCAR 40-year Reanalysis Project (1996) Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 77 (3), pp. 437-471; Kara, A.B., Barron, C.N., Martin, P.J., Smedstad, L.F., Rhodes, R.C., Validation of interannual simulations from the 1/8 degree global Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM) (2006) Ocean Modell., 11 (3), pp. 376-398; Kosro, P.M., A poleward jet and an equatorward undercurrent observed off Oregon and northern California during the 1997–98 El Niño (2002) Prog. Oceanogr., 54 (1-4), pp. 343-360; Kosro, P.M., Enhanced southward flow over the Oregon shelf in 2002: A conduit for subarctic water (2003) Geophys. Res. Lett., 30 (15), p. 8023; Kosro, P.M., On the spatial structure of coastal circulation off Newport, Oregon, during spring and summer 2001 in a region of varying shelf width (2005) J. Geophys. Res., 110, p. C10S06; Kosro, P.M., Peterson, W.T., Hickey, B.M., Shearman, R.K., Pierce, S.D., Physical versus biological spring transition: 2005 (2006) Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, p. L22S03; Kudela, R.M., Cochlan, W.P., Peterson, T.D., Trick, C.G., Impacts of phytoplankton biomass and productivity in the Pacific Northwest during the warm ocean conditions of 2005 (2006) Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, p. L22S06; Landry, M.R., Postel, J.R., Peterson, W.K., Newman, J., Broad-scale distributional patterns of hydrographic variables on the Washington/Oregon shelf (1989) Coastal Oceanography of Washington and Oregon, pp. 1-40. , in, edited by, M. R. Landry, B. M. Hickey, Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands; Large, W.G., Pond, S., Open ocean momentum flux measurements in moderate to strong winds (1981) J. Phys. Oceanogr., 11, pp. 324-336; MacFadyen, A., Hickey, B.M., Foreman, M.G.G., Transport of surface waters from the Juan de Fuca eddy region to the Washington coast (2005) Cont. Shelf Res., 25 (16), pp. 2008-2021; MacFadyen, A., Hickey, B.M., Cochlan, W.P., Influences of the Juan de Fuca Eddy on circulation, nutrients, and phytoplankton production in the northern California Current System (2008) J. Geophys. Res., 113, p. C08008; Mass, C.F., Regional environmental prediction over the Pacific Northwest (2003) Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 84 (10), pp. 1353-1366; Mazzini, P.L.F., Barth, J.A., Shearman, R.K., Erofeev, A., Buoyancy-driven coastal currents off Oregon during fall and winter (2014) J. Phys. Oceanogr., 44, pp. 2854-2876; McCreary, J.P., A linear stratified ocean model of the coastal undercurrent (1981) Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London A, 30, pp. 385-413; McCreary, J.P., Kundu, P.K., Chao, S., On the dynamics of the California Current system (1987) J. Mar. Res., 45 (1), pp. 1-32; McGary, N.B., An atlas of the Columbia river effluent and its distribution at sea (1971) Univ. Wash. Spec. Rep., 47, p. 57; Pares-Sierra, A., O'Brien, J.J., The seasonal and interannual variability of the California Current system: A numerical model (1989) J. Geophys. Res., 94 (C3), pp. 3159-3180; Pierce, S.D., Smith, R.L., Kosro, P.M., Barth, J.A., Wilson, C.D., Continuity of the poleward undercurrent along the eastern boundary of the mid-latitude north Pacific (2000) Deep Sea Res., Part II, 47, pp. 811-829; Pierce, S.D., Barth, J.A., Thomas, R.E., Fleischer, G.W., Anomalously warm July 2005 in the northern California Current: Historical context and the significance of cumulative wind stress (2006) Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, p. L22S04; Pringle, J.M., Riser, K., Remotely forced nearshore upwelling in Southern California (2003) J. Geophys. Res., 108 (C4), p. 3131; Ramp, S.R., Bahr, F.L., Seasonal evolution of the upwelling process south of Cape Blanco (2008) J. Phys. Oceanogr., 38 (1), pp. 3-28; Shchepetkin, A.F., McWilliams, J.C., The regional oceanic modeling system (ROMS): A split-explicit, free-surface, topography-following-coordinate oceanic model (2005) Ocean Modell., 9 (4), pp. 347-404; Shulman, I., Kindle, J.C., deRada, S., Anderson, S.C., Penta, B., Martin, P.J., Development of a hierarchy of nested models to study the California Current system (2004) 8th International Conference on Estuarine and Coastal Modeling 2003, pp. 74-87. , in, edited by, M. L. Spaulding, Am. Soc. of Civ. Eng, Reston, Va; Song, Y., Haidvogel, D., A semi-implicit ocean circulation model using a generalized topography-following coordinate system (1994) J. Comput. Phys., 115 (1), pp. 228-244; Springer, S.R., Samelson, R.M., Allen, J.S., Egbert, G.D., Kurapov, A.L., Miller, R.N., Kindle, J.C., A nested grid model of the Oregon Coastal Transition Zone: Simulations and comparisons with observations during the 2001 upwelling season (2009) J. Geophys. Res., 114, p. C02010; Strub, P.T., James, C., Atmospheric conditions during the spring and fall transitions in the coastal ocean off western United States (1988) J. Geophys. Res., 93 (C12), pp. 15,561-15,584; Strub, P.T., Allen, J.S., Huyer, A., Smith, R.L., Beardsley, R.C., Seasonal cycles of currents, temperatures, winds and sea level over the northeast Pacific continental shelf: 35°N to 48°N (1987) J. Geophys. Res., 92 (C2), pp. 1507-1526; Strub, P.T., Allen, J.S., Huyer, A., Smith, R.L., Large-scale structure of the spring transition in the coastal ocean off western North America (1987) J. Geophys. Res., 92 (C2), pp. 1527-1544; Suginohara, N., Coastal upwelling: Onshore-offshore circulation, equatorward coastal jet and poleward undercurrent over a continental shelf-slope (1982) J. Phys. Oceanogr., 12, pp. 272-284; Sutherland, D.A., MacCready, P., Banas, N.S., Smedstad, L.F., A model study of the Salish Sea estuarine circulation (2011) J. Phys. Oceanogr., 41, pp. 1125-1143; Thomson, R.E., Krassovski, M.V., Poleward reach of the California Undercurrent extension (2010) J. Geophys. Res., 115, p. C09027; Tinis, S.W., Thomson, R.E., Mass, C.F., Hickey, B.M., Comparison of MM5 and meteorological buoy winds from British Columbia to Northern California (2006) Atmos. Ocean, 44 (1), pp. 65-81; Werner, F.E., Hickey, B.M., The role of a longshore pressure gradient in Pacific Northwest coastal dynamics (1983) J. Phys. Oceanogr., 13, pp. 395-410