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Published journal articles by MLML faculty, staff and students. Full text is included when copyright allows.


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Age, growth, and maturity of cabezon (Scorpaenichthys marmoratus) in California
Age, growth, and maturity of cabezon (Scorpaenichthys marmoratus) in California
The age, growth, and maturity of cabezon (Scorpaenichthys marmoratus) from California were studied from July 2000 - July 2001. Ages were estimated using otoliths (n = 641) and validated using edge analysis. Errors in age estimates were calculated using average percent error, coefficient of variation, and Index of precision. Growth was represented by the von Bertalanffy growth equation and statistically compared between sexes using Analysis of Residual Sum of Squares. Length and age at 50 % maturity was modeled for both sexes using a logistic curve. Females attained a larger size and grew slower (L 0 = 647.2 mm TL, k = 0.17) than males (L 0 = 440.7 mm TL, k = 0.35). Growth appeared to be rapid through age 4 for males and age 6 for females. The oldest male was 13 years old; the oldest female, 14 years. Growth curves were statistically different between sexes (P < .001). Length and age at maturity were estimated for males and females, with males maturing at 297 mm TL (1.9 yrs) and females at 337 mm TL (2.3 yrs)., Cited By (since 1996):1, Fish and Fisheries
Age, growth, and maturity of the whitebrow skate, Bathyraja minispinosa, from the eastern Bering Sea
Age, growth, and maturity of the whitebrow skate, Bathyraja minispinosa, from the eastern Bering Sea
Skates are a common bycatch in groundfish fisheries in the Bering Sea; however, their life-history characteristics are not well known. The study is the first to investigate the age, growth, and age at maturity of Bathyraja minispinosa. Ages were estimated using sectioned vertebrae and several growth models were compared. The Gompertz model was the best fit and no significant differences were detected between sexes for any model. The maximum age estimated was 37 years, and parameter estimates generated from the three-parameter von Bertalanffy model were k 0.02 year -1 and L∞ 146.9 cm total length (TL). Males reached their size at 50 maturity larger than females (70.1 and 67.4 cm, respectively), but no significant differences in the estimated size or age at maturity were found. Whereas B. minispinosa is smaller than many skate species in the eastern Bering Sea, it has a considerably longer estimated lifespan, indicating that size may not be a reliable method of estimating the vulnerability of a rajid species to population declines in the eastern North Pacific. © 2011 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea., Cited By (since 1996):1, Fish and Fisheries, CODEN: ICESE
Algal succession in a Macrocystis pyrifera forest
Algal succession in a Macrocystis pyrifera forest
Algal succession within a subtidal forest of the giant kelp. Macrocystis pyrifera was studied by following colonization and community development on concrete blocks fastened to the bottom. Sets of blocks were placed in the bed at 3-month intervals. Subsequent algal development on each set was followed for over a year. All macroscopic species attached to the substrata were noted, and the number and length of basal branches determined every I to 3 months. Colonizing plants fell into 3 categories: rapid-growing ephemerals, and rapid and slow-growing perennials. Ephemerals such as Giffordia (Ectocarpus) mitchellae, Colpomenia peregrina, and diatom films generally produced an initial bloom on the blocks but were gradually replaced by perennials (articulas corallines, Rhodymenia spp., Gigartina spp.) characteristic of the mature kelp community. These stages, rather than representing "ecological" succession, seemed to reflect differences in growth rate and success in interspecific competition for space and light. Colonization on the blocks varied with season, indicating that most species have either a spring-summer or fall-winter period of maximum reproduction. M. pyrifera sporophyte colonization was greatest in spring. During community development, algal diversity (H), number of species (s) and evenness (J) all reached a peak within 100 to 200 days regardless of the time the blocks were started. Diversity and number of species then fell as ephemeral species disappeared. These species were apparently unable to compete with perennials and, once gone, did not recolonize. Evenness remained high.
Alliance for coastal technologies
Alliance for coastal technologies
The Alliance for Coastal Technologies (ACT) has been established to support innovation and to provide the information required to select the most appropriate tools for studying and monitoring coastal and ocean environments. ACT is a consortium of nationally prominent ocean science and technology institutions and experts who provide credible performance data of these technologies through third-party, objective testing. ACT technology verifications include laboratory and field tests over short- and long-term deployments of commercial technologies in diverse environments to provide unequivocal, unbiased confirmation that technologies meet key performance requirements. ACT demonstrations of new technologies validate the technology concept and help eliminate performance problems before operational introduction. ACT's most recent demonstration of pCO2 sensors is an example of how ACT advances the evolution of ocean observing technologies, in this case to address the critical issue of ocean acidification, and promotes more informed decision making on technology capabilities and choices., Cited By (since 1996):1, Oceanography
Alongcoast structure and interannual variability of seasonal midshelf water properties and velocity in the Northern California Current System
Alongcoast structure and interannual variability of seasonal midshelf water properties and velocity in the Northern California Current System
Moored sensors were maintained for ∼5 years on the northern California Current System (CCS) midshelf. The alongcoast sensor array spanned the area of influence of the plume from the Columbia River, several submarine canyons, as well as a coastal promontory where the equatorward coastal jet frequently separates from the shelf. Upwelling-favorable wind stress magnitude decreases poleward by more than a factor of three over the latitudinal range and shelf width varies by a factor of two. In spite of the alongcoast structure in setting, both seasonal and interannual patterns in subsurface layer water properties were remarkably similar at all sites. Higher in the water column, freshwater forcing was substantial. Because of the near surface freshwater input, seasonal sea surface and subsurface temperatures were almost perfectly out of phase in the northernmost CCS, with a mid water column inversion in winter. Year to year differences in subsurface layer wintertime water properties were similar to spatial and temporal patterns of wind stress variability: little alongcoast structure except in salinity, but pronounced interannual differences strongly related to local wind stress. Summertime wind and subsurface property patterns were the opposite of those in winter: pronounced alongcoast wind stress structure, but little or no alongcoast or interannual variability in water properties, and only a weak relationship to local wind stress. Summertime interannual water property variability, including source waters, was shown to be more consistent with “remote forcing” via larger scale wind stress rather than with local wind stress, particularly in the northernmost CCS. © 2016. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved., Article, References: Allen, J.S., Newberger, P.A., Federiuk, J., Upwelling circulation on the Oregon continental shelf. Part I. Response to idealized forcing (1995) J. Phys. 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Alongcoast structure and interannual variability of seasonal midshelf water properties and velocity in the Northern California Current System
Alongcoast structure and interannual variability of seasonal midshelf water properties and velocity in the Northern California Current System
Moored sensors were maintained for ∼5 years on the northern California Current System (CCS) midshelf. The alongcoast sensor array spanned the area of influence of the plume from the Columbia River, several submarine canyons, as well as a coastal promontory where the equatorward coastal jet frequently separates from the shelf. Upwelling-favorable wind stress magnitude decreases poleward by more than a factor of three over the latitudinal range and shelf width varies by a factor of two. In spite of the alongcoast structure in setting, both seasonal and interannual patterns in subsurface layer water properties were remarkably similar at all sites. Higher in the water column, freshwater forcing was substantial. Because of the near surface freshwater input, seasonal sea surface and subsurface temperatures were almost perfectly out of phase in the northernmost CCS (WA and OR), with a mid water column inversion in winter. Year to year differences in subsurface layer wintertime water properties were similar to spatial and temporal patterns of wind stress variability: little alongcoast structure except in salinity, but pronounced interannual differences. Summertime wind and property patterns were the opposite of those in winter: pronounced alongcoast wind stress structure, but little or no alongcoast or interannual variability in water property extremes, and only a weak relationship to local wind stress. Summertime interannual water property variability, including source waters, was shown to be more consistent with “remote forcing” via larger scale wind stress rather than with local wind stress, particularly in the northernmost CCS. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Alternative, indirect measures of ballast water treatment efficacy during a shipboard trial: A case study
Alternative, indirect measures of ballast water treatment efficacy during a shipboard trial: A case study
Cited By :2, A shipboard study was conducted aboard the cruise ship Coral Princess during a scheduled cruise from San Pedro, CA, USA to Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The investigation involved three members of the global TestNet group, with experience in certification testing of ballast water treatment systems (BWTS) designed to eliminate entrained invasive species. A UV-based ballast water treatment system had been employed aboard the vessel for more than 10 years. A variety of established and experimental assessment techniques were employed, both aboard the ship and following shipment of samples via road (5 days) and air (7 days) to remote laboratories. The study was designed to compare the performance of different techniques in assessing BWTS compliance with international regulations, and to test the feasibility of compliance assessment by Port State Control internationally using different laboratories. Overall, biological end-points showed effective treatment of ballast water as judged by the percentage removal (mortality) of organisms in treated samples. Sample transport indicated generally good potential for ‘off-site’ sample analysis and displayed a possible latent effect of treatment as judged by a decline in photosynthetic yield associated with delayed analysis.
An accidental attachment of Elthusa raynaudii (Isopoda, Cymothoidae) in Etmopterus sp. (Squaliformes, Etmopteridae)
An accidental attachment of Elthusa raynaudii (Isopoda, Cymothoidae) in Etmopterus sp. (Squaliformes, Etmopteridae)
A female Elthusa raynaudii was found attached on the roof of the mouth facing inward in a lantern shark, Etmopterus sp. in Taiwan. This was backwards to all known cymothoid attachments in the mouths of fishes. This isopod naturally occurs in the gill chamber of fishes. The attachment must have occurred accidentally. This is only the fourth time this isopod has been collected in the northern hemisphere and the first for Taiwan and this host. © Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010., Fish and Fisheries, CODEN: ACTPE
An annotated checklist of the chondrichthyans of Taiwan
An annotated checklist of the chondrichthyans of Taiwan
An annotated checklist of chondrichthyan fishes (sharks, batoids, and chimaeras) occurring in Taiwanese waters is presented. The checklist is the result of a biodiversity workshop held in Mach 2012 as well as on-going systematic revisions by the authors. The chondrichthyan fauna of Taiwan is one of the richest in the world with the number of species totaling 181, comprising 52 families and 98 genera. It includes 31 families, 64 genera, and 119 species of sharks, 19 families, 31 genera, and 58 species of batoids, and 2 families, 3 genera, and 4 species of chimaeras. The most species-rich families are the Carcharhinidae with 22 species followed by the Scyliorhinidae with 17. The most species-rich batoid families are the Dasyatidae with 11 species and and the Rajidae with 10. Verified voucher material is provided for each species where available and potential taxonomic issues are high-lighted when applicable. This represents the first detailed, evidence-based checklist of chondrichthyans from Taiwanese waters in over 40 years. © 2013 Magnolia Press., Cited By (since 1996):2, Export Date: 11 February 2014
An application of underwater imaging for marine vertebrate ecology
An application of underwater imaging for marine vertebrate ecology
Moss Landing Marine Laboratories (MLML) and the National Marine Fisheries Service have conducted leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea) sea turtle research for the last eight years. Leatherbacks come to the central California coast to forage on concentrations of jellyfish that accumulate in the nutrient rich waters over the coastal shelf. The research includes tracking leatherbacks across the Pacific Ocean with satellite transmitters, suction-cup attachment of time-depth-recorders (TDR) tags, and collection of morphological data. The TDRs are used to record the dive profiles of the leatherbacks foraging for jellyfish near shore. The TDR data provide graphical representation of the dive profile, showing decent and ascent rates, along with variations or deviations in the ascent pattern. This paper describes an application of a modest, but unique underwater imagining system designed and constructed at MLML to answer some of the questions inspired by the dive profiles. MLML's Turtle Cam synchronizes dive profiles with video images, providing researchers with a tool that is giving new insights to leatherback foraging ecology. ©2010 IEEE., Marine Mammals, Birds & Turtles, Art. No.: 5664044
An approach to determining the ecological effects of seaweed harvesting
An approach to determining the ecological effects of seaweed harvesting
The ecological effects of seaweed harvesting are similar to those of natural disturbances; both remove all or portions of populations, providing space or other resources that initiate succession. Natural disturbances vary in severity, extent, and frequency, and the interplay between these factors and the life history and phenological attributes of affected species regulates much of subsequent succession and community structure (reviewed in Sousa, 1984; Pickett & White, 1985). This approach to understanding natural communities has become increasingly important in community ecology but, to our knowledge, has not been applied to managing seaweed resources.
An evaluation of ISFET sensors for coastal pH monitoring applications
An evaluation of ISFET sensors for coastal pH monitoring applications
Abstract The accuracy and precision of ion sensitive field effect transistor (ISFET) pH sensors have been well documented, but primarily by ocean chemistry specialists employing the technology at single locations. Here we examine their performance in a network context through comparison to discrete measurements of pH, using different configurations of the Honeywell DuraFET pH sensor deployed in six coastal settings by operators with a range of experience. Experience of the operator had the largest effect on performance. The average difference between discrete and ISFET pH was 0.005 pH units, but ranged from −0.030 to 0.083 among operators, with more experienced operators within ± 0.02 pH units of the discrete measurement. In addition, experienced operators achieved a narrower range of variance in difference between discrete bottle measurements and ISFET sensor readings compared to novice operators and novice operators had a higher proportion of data failing quality control screening. There were no statistically significant differences in data uncertainty associated with sensor manufacturer or deployment environment (pier-mounted, flowthrough system, and buoy-mounted). The variation we observed among operators highlights the necessity of best practices and training when instruments are to be used in a network where comparison across data streams is desired. However, while opportunities remain for improving the performance of the ISFET sensors when deployed by less experienced operators, the uncertainty associated with their deployment and validation was several-fold less than the observed natural temporal variability in pH, demonstrating the utility of these sensors in tracking local changes in acidification.
An evaluation of mercury offloading in two Central California elasmobranchs
An evaluation of mercury offloading in two Central California elasmobranchs
Elasmobranchs occupy high trophic levels, accumulate high concentrations of mercury in their tissues, and have high energetic levels of maternal investment to offspring, which may cause embryos to be exposed in utero to harmful concentrations of mercury. We investigated the maternal transfer of mercury in two common coastal elasmobranch species, Triakis semifasciata and Platyrhinoidis triseriata, to determine which reproductive parameters may influence mercury offloading, and whether embryos are at risk to mercury toxicity. Mercury concentration was measured in female muscle, female liver, and embryonic tissues. The behavior of mercury in adult female tissues differed between species, as liver mercury concentration was significantly correlated to muscle mercury concentration in P. triseriata but not in T. semifasciata. Embryos of both species were found with potentially harmful mercury concentrations in their muscle tissues. Embryo mercury concentration increased with female muscle mercury concentration, but the relationship to female liver mercury was more variable. The rate of mercury transfer and overall offloading potential were significantly greater in P. triseriata than T. semifasciata. It appears that female mercury concentration, either in muscle or liver, is an important influencing factor for mercury offloading, but the impact of the differing reproductive modes in these two species was less clear. More study on this subject will continue to elucidate the factors influencing mercury offloading in sharks and rays, and how contaminant risk affects populations on a whole.
An evaluation of methods for calculating mean sediment quality guildline quotients as indicators of contamination and acute toxicity to amphipods by chemical mixtures
An evaluation of methods for calculating mean sediment quality guildline quotients as indicators of contamination and acute toxicity to amphipods by chemical mixtures
Mean sediment quality guideline quotients (mean SQGQs) were developed to represent the presence of chemical mixtures in sediments and are derived by normalizing a suite of chemicals to their respective numerical sediment quality guidelines (SQGs). Mean SQGQs incorporate the number of SQGs exceeded and the degree to which they are exceeded and are used for comparison with observed biological effects in the laboratory or field. The current research makes it clear, however, that the number and type of SQGs used in the derivation of these mean quotients can influence the ability of mean SQGQ values to correctly predict acute toxicity to marine amphipods in laboratory toxicity tests. To determine the optimal predictive ability of mean SQGQs, a total of 18 different chemical combinations were developed and compared. The ability of each set of mean SQGQs to correctly predict the presence and absence of acute toxicity to amphipods was determined using three independent databases (n = 605, 2753, 226). Calculated mean SQGQ values for all chemical combinations ranged from 0.002 to 100. The mean SQGQ that was most predictive of acute toxicity to amphipods is calculated as SQGQ1 = ((∑ ([cadmium]/4.21)([copper]/270)([lead]/112.18)([silver]/1.77)([zinc]/ 410)([total chlordane]/6)([dieldrin]/8)([total PAHOC]/1,800)([total PCB]/400))/9). Both the incidence and magnitude of acute toxicity to amphipods increased with increasing SQGQ1 values. To provide better comparability between regions and national surveys, SQGQ1 is recommended to serve as the standard method for combination of chemicals and respective SQGs when calculating mean SQGQs.
An example crossover experiment for testing new vicarious calibration techniques for satellite ocean color radiometry
An example crossover experiment for testing new vicarious calibration techniques for satellite ocean color radiometry
Vicarious calibration of ocean color satellites involves the use of accurate surface measurements of waterleaving radiance to update and improve the system calibration of ocean color satellite sensors. An experiment was performed to compare a free-fall technique with the established Marine Optical Buoy (MOBY) measurement. It was found in the laboratory that the radiance and irradiance instruments compared well within their estimated uncertainties for various spectral sources. The spectrally averaged differences between the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) values for the sources and the instruments were<2.5% for the radiance sensors and<1.5% for the irradiance sensors. In the field, the sensors measuring the above-surface downwelling irradiance performed nearly as well as they had in the laboratory, with an average difference of<2%.While the water-leaving radiance L w calculated from each instrument agreed in almost all cases within the combined instrument uncertainties (approximately 7%), there was a relative bias between the two instrument classes/techniques that varied spectrally. The spectrally averaged (400-600 nm) difference between the two instrument classes/techniques was 3.1%. However, the spectral variation resulted in the freefall instruments being 0.2% lower at 450 nm and 5.9% higher at 550 nm. Based on the analysis of one matchup, the bias in L w was similar to that observed for L u(1 m) with both systems, indicating the difference did not come from propagating L u(1 m) to L w. © 2010 American Meteorological Society., Cited By (since 1996):6, Oceanography, CODEN: JAOTE
An implementation plan for renewal of the national academic research fleet
An implementation plan for renewal of the national academic research fleet
The National Academic Research Fleet is widely regarded as the most capable fleet in the world. Each year this fleet of vessels supports approximately 500 oceanographic research cruises in the waters surrounding the US as well as the global oceans. The Fleet consists of 27 ships ranging in size from 66 feet to 279 feet. Many of these ships entered service in the 1970's and early 80's. In the next decade these same ships will be approaching their projected retirement dates. Without ship replacement, projections indicate that by 2009 there will be a shortage of research ships. The Federal Oceanographic Facilities Committee (FOFC) report, Charting the Future for the National Academic Research Fleet (12/01), provides specific recommendations for fleet retirement and renewal. The process for implementing fleet renewal must begin now. The University-National Oceanographic Laboratory System (UNOLS) is the primary forum for planning and advice by the academic community regarding the facilities supporting ocean science research. Within UNOLS, the Fleet Improvement Committee (FIC) works to assure the continuing excellence of the UNOLS fleet and to assure that the number, mix and overall capability of ships in the UNOLS fleet match the science requirements of U.S academic oceanographers. Renewal of the research fleet is FIC's highest priority. In the coming years, UNOLS along with the federal agencies will work together on implementation of a plan for fleet renewal. Past ship construction efforts have taken as long as ten years, planning must begin now to ensure that the facilities needed for future oceanographic research programs will be available. FIC has drafted a roadmap for implementing fleet renewal. The roadmap outlines the various design steps, responsibilities and timelines recommended for ship design and construction. Designing a fleet for the future that can accommodate the multidisciplinary projected research needs of a diverse community of scientists can be challenging. The roadmap outlines a strategy for a focused approach that ensures community involvement at all design stages. The implementation plan begins with the establishment of science mission requirements. Sea-going scientists who will ultimately use the platforms must define these requirements. The roadmap identifies the need for design feasibility checks and cost estimates for both construction and operation. It will allow consideration of new technologies and various hull forms. This paper will describe FIC's recommended roadmap for fleet renewal. It will focus on the process for developing science mission requirements and efforts currently underway within UNOLS., Vessels & Voyages, CODEN: OCNSD
An integrated approach for assessing translocation as an effective conservation tool for Hawaiian monk seals
An integrated approach for assessing translocation as an effective conservation tool for Hawaiian monk seals
For threatened and endangered species, translocations have been widely used to mitigate multiple sources of mortality that threaten population recovery. Although numerous Hawaiian monk seals Neomonachus schauinslandi have been translocated for a variety of purposes, few monk seal translocations have addressed the problem of prey limitation. To assess the efficacy of using translocations to mitigate reduced prey availability, 12 weanling monk seals were translocated with pre-release health screening and post-release monitoring. Specifically, the health, foraging behavior, habitat use, and survival of translocated seals were compared with those of 17 monk seals resident to the release site. There was little evidence of infectious diseases in translocated and resident seals, although Chlamydophila abortus antibodies and enteric bacteria were detected in many individuals. Translocated and resident weanling seals also demonstrated similar diving, movements, and habitat use, whereas resident adult seals had greater variability in foraging patterns. First-year survival for translocated weanlings (50%, n = 12) and non-translocated weanlings at the donor (31%, n = 36) and recipient sites (69%, n = 16) was related to weaning body size, with larger individuals having greater survivorship. These results supported 3 main conclusions that have important consequences for future translocation and population recovery efforts: (1) there was minimal risk of exposing seals to novel infectious diseases as a result of translocation; (2) individuals translocated with limited foraging experience rapidly adapted to their post-release environment; and (3) translocation for the purpose of mitigating prey limitation is a viable and important conservation tool for Hawaiian monk seals. © Outside the USA the US Government 2017., Article
An overview on the role of Hexanchiformes in marine ecosystems
An overview on the role of Hexanchiformes in marine ecosystems
The large size, high trophic level and wide distribution of Hexanchiformes (cow and frilled sharks) should position this order as important apex predators in coastal and deep-water ecosystems. This review synthesizes available information on Hexanchiformes, including information not yet published, with the purpose of evaluating their conservation status and assessing their ecological roles in the dynamics of marine ecosystems. Comprising six species, this group has a wide global distribution, with members occurring from shallow coastal areas to depths of c. 2500 m. The limited information available on their reproductive biology suggests that they could be vulnerable to overexploitation (e.g. small litter sizes for most species and suspected long gestation periods). Most of the fishing pressure exerted on Hexanchiformes is in the form of commercial by-catch or recreational fishing. Comprehensive stock and impact assessments are unavailable for most species in most regions due to limited information on life history and catch and abundance time series. When hexanchiform species have been commercially harvested, however, they have been unable to sustain targeted fisheries for long periods. The potentially high vulnerability to intense fishing pressure warrants a conservative exploitation of this order until thorough quantitative assessments are conducted. At least some species have been shown to be significant apex predators in the systems they inhabit. Should Hexanchiformes be removed from coastal and deep-water systems, the lack of sympatric shark species that share the same resources suggests no other species would be capable of fulfilling their apex predator role in the short term. This has potential ecosystem consequences such as meso-predator release or trophic cascades. This review proposes some hypotheses on the ecology of Hexanchiformes and their role in ecosystem dynamics, highlighting the areas where critical information is required to stimulate research directions. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles., CODEN: JFIBA, Fish and Fisheries
Analysis of seawater for dissolved cadmium, copper and lead
Analysis of seawater for dissolved cadmium, copper and lead
An intercomparison study of voltammetric and atomic absorption spectrometric methods for determining cadmium, lead and copper in seawater samples was conducted. The voltammetric approach utilizes differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry using a rotating, glassy carbon, mercury film electrode under conditions developed to minimize contamination sources and to enhance sensitivity for seawater matrices. The atomic absorption approach involves a concentration step using either an organic solvent extraction of metal dithiocarbamate chelates or a Chelex-100 column with detection by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Similar and consistent results were obtained using both methods for the three trace metals studied on a wide range of natural seawater samples. Both methods are comparable in sensitivity for cadmium and copper, however the voltammetric method is better suited for the analysis of lead in seawater because of its enhanced sensitivity and low blank. An advantage of the voltammetric approach is its amenability towards real-time shipboard analysis.
Analytical chemistry in oceanography
Analytical chemistry in oceanography
Cited By (since 1996):41, Oceanography, CODEN: ANCHA
Angler exposure to domoic acid via consumption of contaminated fishes
Angler exposure to domoic acid via consumption of contaminated fishes
Domoic acid (DA) is a neurotoxin that causes amnesic shellfish poisoning, and fish are recognized vectors of DA to marine fauna. However, the exposure of anglers through consumption of DAcontaminated fish is unknown. We measured DA in 11 fish species targeted by Santa Cruz Wharf (SCW) anglers in Monterey Bay, California, USA, and surveyed anglers regarding their fish consumption patterns. In addition, we used California mussel Mytilus californianus DA data provided by the state of California and our measurements of DA in seawater to examine the associations between DA in fish viscera versus in mussels and seawater. DA was detected in the viscera of 7 fish species commonly consumed by anglers, and toxin uptake in fishes varied according to their diet. DA was almost entirely in the viscera, with low DA concentrations detected in muscle tissue. The majority of anglers (58% of 565) reported consuming their catch, with a small fraction ingesting the viscera. Total DA concentrations in fish decreased significantly after 11 mo storage at –20°C. DA concentration in seawater and California mussels was correlated with DA in the viscera of some but not all fish groups. We conclude that SCW anglers who consume their catch are exposed to asymptomatic DA doses, and that exposure is a function of the species and parts consumed, as well as storage methods and DA levels in the seawater when the fish are caught.

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