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Published journal articles by MLML faculty, staff and students. Full text is included when copyright allows.


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Captive biology of the pelagic stingray, Dasyatis violacea (Bonaparte, 1832)
Captive biology of the pelagic stingray, Dasyatis violacea (Bonaparte, 1832)
Pelagic stingrays, Dasyatis violacea, were collected in southern California in summer-autumn 1994-97. The smallest, 40-45 cm disc width (DW) and 2 kg, were estimated to approach age two. In captive growth and feeding experiments from March 1995 to August 2000, the largest male reached 68 cm DW and 12 kg at estimated age 7 years, and the largest female reached 96 cm DW and 49 kg at estimated age 9 years. The growth data could be fitted with both Gompertz and von Bertalanffy growth functions, but the former produced more reasonable values for size at birth, maximum size, and longevity. Consumption of squid was 6-7% of body mass (BM) per day for juveniles 2 years old and decreased to 1.25% BM day-1 for adults. Food intake for adults was seasonal, with 2 cycles per year with a maximum of ∼2.0% and a minimum of 1.0-0.5% BM day-1 from July to October 1998. The data for gross conversion efficiency (K1, based on energy values), collected at 20°C with daily feeding to satiation, could be fitted with a linear regression in the estimated mean age range of 3-6 years (K1 = 0.37 - 0.055 Age)., Cited By (since 1996):42, Fish and Fisheries, CODEN: AJMFA
Cataloging digital geospatial data
Cataloging digital geospatial data
The availability and use of electronic cartographic resources is growing rapidly and has affected all aspects of map librarianship: acquisitions, reference and information services, and cataloging. Map librarians are questioning current practices, juggling priorities, shifting focus, and changing procedures as electronic cartographic materials become a larger part of their map collections. Cataloging practices are no exception to this transformation. This paper presents a preliminary examination of current cataloging rules, guidelines, and practices for electronic cartographic material, focusing on access points.
Causality of an extreme harmful algal bloom in Monterey Bay, California, during the 2014-2016 northeast Pacific warm anomaly
Causality of an extreme harmful algal bloom in Monterey Bay, California, during the 2014-2016 northeast Pacific warm anomaly
Export Date: 26 June 2017, Article in Press, An ecologically and economically disruptive harmful algal bloom (HAB) affected much of the northeast Pacific margin in 2015, during a prolonged oceanic warm anomaly. Caused by diatoms of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia, this HAB produced the highest particulate concentrations of the biotoxin domoic acid (DA) ever recorded in Monterey Bay, California. Bloom inception followed strong upwelling during the spring transition, which introduced nutrients and eliminated the warm anomaly locally. Subsequently, moderate and intermittent upwelling created favorable conditions for growth and accumulation of HAB biomass, which was dominated by a highly toxigenic species, P. australis. High cellular DA concentrations were associated with available nitrogen for DA synthesis coincident with silicate exhaustion. This nutrient influence resulted from two factors: (1) disproportionate depletion of silicate in upwelling source waters during the warm anomaly, the most severe depletion observed in 24 years, and (2) silicate uptake by the dense diatom bloom
Cephalopod remains from stomachs of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) that mass-stranded along the Oregon coast
Cephalopod remains from stomachs of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) that mass-stranded along the Oregon coast
On 16 June 1979, a herd of 41 sperm whales stranded near the mouth of the Siuslaw River in Florence, Oregon. The stomach contents from 32 whales were collected, identified to the lowest taxonomic level possible, enumerated, and measured. A total of 20,247 cephalopod lower beaks that represented 24 species from 14 different families were recovered. The most numerous species were Histioteuthis hoylei (25.9%), Taonius borealis (12.9%), Galiteuthis phyllura (11.2%), Gonatopsis/Berryteuthis type (10.9%), and Moroteuthis robusta (10.7%). Reconstructed estimates of mass indicated that M. robusta contributed almost 50% of the total mass of cephalopods consumed, followed by H. hoylei (19.3%), and T. borealis (7.0%). The most important species in the diet of stranded whales were M. robusta, H. hoylei, T. borealis, G. phyllura, Octopoteuthis deletron, and Gonatopsis/Berryteuthis type. There were significant differences in the diet of males and females, but no differences between sperm whales of different age groups. Overall, sperm whales primarily consumed small cephalopods that were likely eaten south of 45oN in or near the California Current System. This study provides new estimates of the food habits of sperm whales in the northeast Pacific from one of the largest strandings of this species. © 2013 Society for Marine Mammalogy., Marine Mammals, Birds & Turtles, Article in Press, CODEN: MMSCE
Cetaceans
Cetaceans
Cetaceans display numerous anatomic and physiologic adaptations to life in a dense, three-dimensional medium. Their bodies have changed radically from those of their terrestrial ancestors, yet their behaviors and types of social organization are broadly similar to those of animals on land. An exploration of cetacean ways helps in understanding how habitat influences habits. For example, it is now recognized that in some important ways, cetacean residents of the open ocean resemble some of their mammalian relatives on the savanna. As air breathers that are inseparably tied to the surface, cetaceans are highly trackable; they may thus help in the monitoring of habitat degradation and other long-term ecologic change., Cited By (since 1996):12, Marine Mammals, Birds & Turtles
Changes in size composition and relative abundance of fishes in Central California after a decade of spatial fishing closures
Changes in size composition and relative abundance of fishes in Central California after a decade of spatial fishing closures
Rockfish Conservation Areas (RCAs) were implemented in 2000 to 2003 along the West Coast of the United States to reduce fishing mortality on rockfish (Sebastes spp.) and other groundfish species that had recently been declared overfished. In 2012, we initiated a study to compare recent catch rates, species compositions and length frequencies of fishes inside and outside the RCAs with data collected in central California between 1995 and 1998. At all sites surveyed, total catch rates from the new surveys (2012–14) were significantly higher than catch rates from before RCA implementation (1995–98). The majority of the differences were due to the increased relative abundance of yellowtail rockfish (Sebastes flavidus), although other species, including the overfished canary rockfish (Sebastes pinniger), also increased. Differences in the size composition of species between the two time periods reflected both the increased survival of older fishes and higher recruitment success in the past decade. © 2015, Scripps Institution of Oceanography. All rights reserved., published
Changes in the cetacean assemblage of a coastal upwelling ecosystem during El Niño 1997-98 and La Niña 1999
Changes in the cetacean assemblage of a coastal upwelling ecosystem during El Niño 1997-98 and La Niña 1999
We report results of ecosystem studies in Monterey Bay, California, during the summer upwelling periods, 1996-99, including impacts of El Niño 1997-98 and La Niña 1999. Random-systematic line-transect surveys of marine mammals were conducted monthly from August to November 1996, and from May to November 1997-99. CTDs and zooplankton net tows were conducted opportunistically, and at 10 predetermined locations. Hydroacoustic backscatter was measured continuously while underway to estimate prevalence of zooplankton, with emphasis on euphausiids, a key trophic link between primary production and higher trophic level consumers. The occurrences of several of the California Current's most common cetaceans varied among years. The assemblage of odontocetes became more diverse during the El Niño with a temporary influx of warm-water species. Densities of cold-temperate Dall's porpoise, Phocoenoides dalli, were greatest before the onset of El Niño, whereas warm-temperate common dolphins, Delphinus spp., were present only during the warm-water period associated with El Niño. Rorqual densities decreased in August 1997 as euphausiid backscatter was reduced. In 1998, as euphausiid backscatter slowly increased, rorqual densities increased sharply to the greatest observed values. Euphausiid backscatter further increased in 1999, whereas rorqual densities were similar to those observed during 1998. We hypothesize that a dramatic reduction in zooplankton biomass offshore during El Niño 1997-98 led to the concentration of rorquals in the remaining productive coastal upwelling areas, including Monterey Bay. These patterns exemplify short-term responses of cetaceans to large-scale changes in oceanic conditions. © 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved., Cited By (since 1996):35, Marine Mammals, Birds & Turtles, CODEN: POCNA
Characterization of a cDNA encoding glutamine synthetase from the marine diatom Skeletonema costatum (Bacillariophyceae)
Characterization of a cDNA encoding glutamine synthetase from the marine diatom Skeletonema costatum (Bacillariophyceae)
A cDNA-encoding glutamime synthetase (GS) was isolated from the marine diatom Skeletonema costatum (Greville) Cleve by PCR amplification. Nucleic acid and deduced amino acid sequences of the diatom GS were greater than 50% identical to GS from green algae and vascular plants, and phylogenetic analysis established the diatom GS as a member of the GSII gene family. The presence of an N-terminus signal sequence, identified on the basis of sequence similarity with other chloroplast-localized proteins from diatoms, suggests that the encoded GS isoenzyme is localized to the chloroplast. The GS mRNA was present in log-phase cells grown with either nitrate or ammonium as the sole added nitrogen source. Results from Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA suggested that the cDNA isolated in this study was either a member of a small, highly conserved gene family or that there was allelic variation within the region examined. Phylogenetic analyses further indicated that genes encoding GS from the diatom and two species of green algae diverged prior to the gene duplication, to the isoenzymes in vascular plants, supporting the hypothesis that GS isoenzymes in diatoms, green algae, and vascular plants arose through independent evolutionary events., Cited By (since 1996):16, Seaweeds, CODEN: JPYLA
Characterization of a harbor seal class I major histocompatability complex cDNA clone
Characterization of a harbor seal class I major histocompatability complex cDNA clone
Cited By (since 1996):1, Marine Mammals, Birds & Turtles, CODEN: IMNGB
Characterization of microsatellite loci in the European green crab (Carcinus maenas)
Characterization of microsatellite loci in the European green crab (Carcinus maenas)
Carcinus maenas (Decapoda: Portunidae) has proven a highly successful invasive marine species whose potential economic and ecological impacts are of great concern worldwide. Here, we characterize 14 polymorphic microsatellite loci in C. maenas and its sister species Carcinus aestuarii. These markers will prove useful for fine-scale genetic analyses of native and introduced populations, for assessment of the sources and routes of invasion and for evaluation of post-invasion population dynamics. © 2006 Blackwell Publishing Ltd., Cited By (since 1996):14, Invertebrates, CODEN: MENOC
Characterizing dispersal patterns in a threatened seabird with limited genetic structure
Characterizing dispersal patterns in a threatened seabird with limited genetic structure
Genetic assignment methods provide an appealing approach for characterizing dispersal patterns on ecological time scales, but require sufficient genetic differentiation to accurately identify migrants and a large enough sample size of migrants to, for example, compare dispersal between sexes or age classes. We demonstrate that assignment methods can be rigorously used to characterize dispersal patterns in a marbled murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) population from central California that numbers approximately 600 individuals and is only moderately differentiated (FST∼ 0.03) from larger populations to the north. We used coalescent simulations to select a significance level that resulted in a low and approximately equal expected number of type I and II errors and then used this significance level to identify a population of origin for 589 individuals genotyped at 13 microsatellite loci. The proportion of migrants in central California was greatest during winter when 83% of individuals were classified as migrants compared to lower proportions during the breeding (6%) and post-breeding (8%) seasons. Dispersal was also biased toward young and female individuals, as is typical in birds. Migrants were rarely members of parent-offspring pairs, suggesting that they contributed few young to the central California population. A greater number of migrants than expected under equilibrium conditions, a lack of individuals with mixed ancestry, and a small number of potential source populations (two), likely allowed us to use assignment methods to rigorously characterize dispersal patterns for a population that was larger and less differentiated than typically thought required for the identification of migrants. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd., Cited By (since 1996):11, Marine Mammals, Birds & Turtles, CODEN: MOECE
Characterizing estuarine plume discharge into the coastal ocean using fatty acid biomarkers and pigment analysis
Characterizing estuarine plume discharge into the coastal ocean using fatty acid biomarkers and pigment analysis
The transformation of estuaries by human activities continues to alter the biogeochemical balance of the coastal ocean. The disruption of this balance can negatively impact the provision of goods and services, including fisheries, commerce and transportation, recreation and esthetic enjoyment. Here we examine a link, between the Elkhorn Slough and the coastal ocean in Monterey Bay, California (USA) using a novel application of fatty acid and pigment analysis. Fatty acid analysis of filtered water samples showed biologically distinct water types between the Elkhorn Slough plume and the receiving waters of the coastal ocean. A remarkable feature of the biological content of the plume entering the coastal ocean was the abundance of bacteria-specific fatty acids, which correlated well with concentrations of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM). Pigment analysis showed that plume waters contained higher concentrations of diatoms and cryptophytes, while the coastal ocean waters showed higher relative concentrations of dinoflagellates. Bacteria and cryptophytes can provide a source of labile, energy-rich organic matter that may be locally important as a source of food for pelagic and benthic communities. Surface and depth surveys of the plume show that the biogeochemical constituents of the slough waters are injected into the coastal waters and become entrained in the northward flowing, nearshore current of Monterey Bay. Transport of these materials to the northern portion of the bay can fuel a bloom incubator, which exists in this region. This study shows that fatty acid markers can reveal the biogeochemical interactions between estuaries and the coastal ocean and highlights how man-made changes have the potential to influence coastal ecological change. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
Characterizing estuarine plume discharge into the coastal ocean using fatty acid biomarkers and pigment analysis
Characterizing estuarine plume discharge into the coastal ocean using fatty acid biomarkers and pigment analysis
The transformation of estuaries by human activities continues to alter the biogeochemical balance of the coastal ocean. The disruption of this balance can negatively impact the provision of goods and services, including fisheries, commerce and transportation, recreation and esthetic enjoyment. Here we examine a link, between the Elkhorn Slough and the coastal ocean in Monterey Bay, California (USA) using a novel application of fatty acid and pigment analysis. Fatty acid analysis of filtered water samples showed biologically distinct water types between the Elkhorn Slough plume and the receiving waters of the coastal ocean. A remarkable feature of the biological content of the plume entering the coastal ocean was the abundance of bacteria-specific fatty acids, which correlated well with concentrations of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM). Pigment analysis showed that plume waters contained higher concentrations of diatoms and cryptophytes, while the coastal ocean waters showed higher relative concentrations of dinoflagellates. Bacteria and cryptophytes can provide a source of labile, energy-rich organic matter that may be locally important as a source of food for pelagic and benthic communities. Surface and depth surveys of the plume show that the biogeochemical constituents of the slough waters are injected into the coastal waters and become entrained in the northward flowing, nearshore current of Monterey Bay. Transport of these materials to the northern portion of the bay can fuel a bloom incubator, which exists in this region. This study shows that fatty acid markers can reveal the biogeochemical interactions between estuaries and the coastal ocean and highlights how man-made changes have the potential to influence coastal ecological change. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved., Article in Press
Characterizing source sink dynamics with genetic parentage assignments
Characterizing source sink dynamics with genetic parentage assignments
Source-sink dynamics have been suggested to characterize the population structure of many species, but the prevalence of source-sink systems in nature is uncertain because of inherent challenges in estimating migration rates among populations. Migration rates are often difficult to estimate directly with demographic methods, and indirect genetic methods are subject to a variety of assumptions that are difficult to meet or to apply to evolutionary timescales. Furthermore, such methods cannot be rigorously applied to high-gene-flow species. Here, we employ genetic parentage assignments in conjunction with demographic simulations to infer the level of immigration into a putative sink population. We use individual-based demographic models to estimate expected distributions of parent-offspring dyads under competing sink and closed-population models. By comparing the actual number of parent-offspring dyads (identified from multilocus genetic profiles) in a random sample of individuals taken from a population to expectations under these two contrasting demographic models, it is possible to estimate the rate of immigration and test hypotheses related to the role of immigration on population processes on an ecological timescale. The difference in the expected number of parent-offspring dyads between the two population models was greatest when immigration into the sink population was high, indicating that unlike traditional population genetic inference models, the highest degree of statistical power is achieved for the approach presented here when migration rates are high. We used the proposed genetic parentage approach to demonstrate that a threatened population of Marbled Murrelets (Brachyramphus marmotus) appears to be supplemented by a low level of immigration (∼2-6% annually) from other populations. © 2008 by the Ecological Society of America., Cited By (since 1996):20, Marine Mammals, Birds & Turtles, CODEN: ECOLA
Chemical And Biological Measures of Sediment Quality And Tissue Bioaccumulation In The North Coast Region. Final Report.
Chemical And Biological Measures of Sediment Quality And Tissue Bioaccumulation In The North Coast Region. Final Report.
California State Water Resources Control Board, Division of Water Quality; California Regional Water Quality Control Board, North Coast Region; California Department of Fish and Game, Marine Pollution Studies Laboratory; California State University, Moss Landing Marine Laboratories; University of California, Santa Cruz, Institute of Marine Sciences. 79 pp.
Chemical And Biological Measures of Sediment Quality In McGrath Lake
Chemical And Biological Measures of Sediment Quality In McGrath Lake
California Regional Water Quality Control Board, Los Angeles Region; Moss Landing Marine Laboratories; California Department of Fish and Game, Marine Pollution Studies Laboratory; University of California, Santa Cruz, Institute of Marine Sciences, pp.
Chemical And Biological Measures of Sediment Quality In The Central Coast Region. Final Report.
Chemical And Biological Measures of Sediment Quality In The Central Coast Region. Final Report.
California State Water Resources Control Board, Central Coast Regional Water Quality Control Board, California Department of Fish and Game; Moss Landing Marine Laboratories; University of California Santa Cruz. 84 pp.
Chemical and biological interactions in the Rose Garden hydrothermal vent field, Galapagos spreading center
Chemical and biological interactions in the Rose Garden hydrothermal vent field, Galapagos spreading center
The concentrations of a suite of redox reactive chemicals were measured in the Rose Garden hydrothermal vent field of the Galapagos spreading center. Sulfide, silicate, oxygen and temperature distributions were measured in situ with a submersible chemical analyser. In addition, 15 chemical species were measured in discrete samples. Variability in the slope of the temperature-silicate plots indicates that heat is lost from these relatively low temperatures (<15°C) solutions by conduction to the solid phase. Consumption of oxygen, sulfide and nitrate from the hydrothermal solution as it flows past the vent animals is apparent from the distributions measured in situ and in the discrete samples. The fraction of sulfide and nitrate removed from the solution by consumption appears to have increased between 1979-1985. Sulfide and oxygen appear to be consumed under different conditions: sulfide is removed primarily from the warmest solutions, and oxygen is consumed only from the cold seawater. This separation may be driven primarily by the increased gradients of each chemical under these conditions. There is no evidence for the consumption of significant amounts of manganese(II) by the vent organisms. The analysis of other data sets from this vent field indicate no significant consumption of methane by the vent organisms, as well. © 1988., Cited By (since 1996):103, Oceanography
Chemical defense, biochemical composition and energy content of three shallow-water Antarctic gastropods
Chemical defense, biochemical composition and energy content of three shallow-water Antarctic gastropods
Aqueous extracts of the mantle tissues of the opisthobranchs Austrodoris kerguelensis and Tritoniella belli and the lamellarid gastropod Marseniopsis mollis were cytotoxic to the sperm of the antarctic sea urchin Sterechinus neumayeri, and caused behavioral responses (sustained terminal sensory tube-feet retractions) in five species of antarctic sea stars. Pieces of mantle tissue of all three species were noxious to two species of antarctic fish. Primary body components (mantle, foot, viscera) of the three gastropod species contained high levels (% dry wt) of NaOH-insoluble protein (40-59%), moderate levels of NaOH-soluble protein (7-25%) and lipid (6-18%), and low levels of carbohydrate (< 1%). The energetic composition of the tissues reflected their organic make-up, with most energy (11-17 kJg -1 dry wt) associated with protein. Total energy contents of representative adult individuals were 192,26 and 69 kJ for A. kerguelensis (93 g wet wt), T. belli (22 g wet wt) and M. mollis (114 g wet wt), respectively. Although these sluggish gastropods lack an external shell and are nutrient-and energy-rich and therefore high quality prey, like many of their temperate and tropical counterparts, they appear to be protected by chemicals. © 1992 Springer-Verlag., Cited By (since 1996):9, Invertebrates, CODEN: POBID
Chemistry, Toxcitiy and Benthic Community Conditions In Sediments Of The San Diego Bay Region. Final Report.
Chemistry, Toxcitiy and Benthic Community Conditions In Sediments Of The San Diego Bay Region. Final Report.
California State Water Resources Control Board; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; California Department of Fish and Game, Marine Pollution Studies Laboratory; Moss Landing Marine Laboratories; University of California, Santa Cruz. 169 pp.
Chimaera carophila (Chondrichthyes: Chimaeriformes: Chimaeridae), a new species of chimaera from New Zealand
Chimaera carophila (Chondrichthyes: Chimaeriformes: Chimaeridae), a new species of chimaera from New Zealand
A new species of chimaeroid, Chimaera carophila sp. nov., is described from 37 specimens collected from deepwater slopes and seamounts around New Zealand. The new species is distinguished from its closest congeners, Chimaera fulva Didier et al. 2008, Chimaera macrospina Didier et al. 2008, and Chimaera obscura Didier et al. 2008, by its uniform pale-brown coloration, geographic distribution, and a combination of morphological characters, including longer dorsal and ventral caudal fin bases, a shorter first dorsal fin height, a shorter dorsal fin spine, and shorter claspers that are divided distally for one-third of their length. Chimaera carophila sp. nov. also can be distinguished from closely related species in New Zealand and Australian waters based on DNA sequence divergence of the NADH2 gene. Comparisons of body size in a large sample of specimens show considerable overlap in character ranges among congeners making species distinctions difficult. New combinations of morphometrics are suggested including ratios of head length to eye length and dorsal spine length to head length, to better distinguish among species of chimaeroids that are similar in overall appearance and size. Also, a key to New Zealand and Australian Chimaera species is provided. © 2015 Rosenstiel School of Marine & Atmospheric Science of the University of Miami., Export Date: 31 July 2015
Chimaera notafricana sp. nov. (Chondrichthyes: Chimaeriformes: Chimaeridae), a new species of chimaera from southern Africa
Chimaera notafricana sp. nov. (Chondrichthyes: Chimaeriformes: Chimaeridae), a new species of chimaera from southern Africa
A new species of chimaera, Chimaera notafricana sp. nov., is described from specimens collected off the west and south coasts of southern Africa. The new species is distinguished from its closest congener, the eastern North Atlantic Chimaera monstrosa, by a combination of morphometric characters and coloration: pectoral fin when depressed reaches to origin of pelvic fin base; caudal fin ventral margin terminating slightly posterior to caudal fin dorsal margin insertion; distance from anterior base of dorsal-fin spine to center of supratemporal canal short (6.5-14.8% HDL); pelvic claspers externally trifid and short (12.1-12.3% BDL), divided for distal one-third of length, not extending past distal tip of pelvic fins; uniform blackish brown with dark bluish streaking, precaudal tail with longitudinal light and dark stripes. This new species has a restricted distribution from Lüderitz, Namibia to south of Algoa Bay, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Copyright © 2010 Magnolia Press., Fish and Fisheries

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