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- Establishing an objective basis for image compositing in satellite oceanography,
- This study strives to establish an objective basis for image compositing in satellite oceanography. Image compositing is a powerful technique for cloud filtering that often emphasizes cloud clearing at the expense of obtaining synoptic coverage. Although incomplete cloud removal in image compositing is readily apparent, the loss of synopticity, often, is not. Consequently, the primary goal of image compositing should be to obtain the greatest amount of cloud-free coverage or clarity in a period short enough that synopticity, to a significant degree, is preserved. To illustrate the process of image compositing and the problems associated with it, we selected a region off the coast of California and constructed two 16-day image composites, one, during the spring, and the second, during the summer of 2006, using Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) InfraRed (IR) satellite imagery. Based on the results of cloud clearing for these two 16-day sequences, rapid cloud clearing occurred up to day 4 or 5, followed by much slower cloud clearing out to day 16, suggesting an explicit basis for the growth in cloud clearing. By day 16, the cloud clearing had, in most cases, exceeded 95%. Based on these results, a shorter compositing period could have been employed without a significant loss in clarity. A method for establishing an objective basis for selecting the period for image compositing is illustrated using observed data. The loss in synopticity, which, in principle, could be estimated from pattern correlations between the images in the composite, was estimated from a separate time series of SST since the loss of synopticity, in our approach, is only a function of time. The autocorrelation function of the detrended residuals provided the decorrelation time scale and the basis for the decay process, which, together, define the loss of synopticity. The results show that (1) the loss of synopticity and the gain in clarity are inversely related, (2) an objective basis for selecting a compositing period corresponds to the day number where the decay and growth curves for synopticity and clarity intersect, and (3), in this case, the point of intersection occurred 3.2 days into the compositing period. By applying simple mathematics it was shown that the intersection time for the loss in synopticity and the growth in clarity is directly proportional to the initial conditions required to specify the clarity at the beginning of the compositing period, and inversely proportional to the sum of the rates of growth for clarity and the loss in synopticity. Finally, we consider these results to be preliminary in nature, and, as a result, hope that future work will bring forth significant improvements in the approach outlined in this study. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved., Cited By (since 1996):3, Oceanography, CODEN: RSEEA, ,
- Breaker, Armstrong, Endris
- Assessing California's bar-built estuaries using the California Rapid Assessment Method
- Abstract Bar-built estuaries are generally found at the mouths of smaller watersheds with seasonal precipitation, episodic streamflow and seasonal swell dynamics. Low streamflows and constructive wave forces form a sand bar at the mouth isolating the stream from the ocean, creating a ponded lagoon, and inundating the surrounding marsh plain. Bar-built estuaries are wide spread in California comprising over 50 percent of California's more than 500 estuaries. By connecting terrestrial, freshwater, and marine realms bar-built estuaries are complex and dynamic providing great habitat and ecosystem services. California has suffered some of the highest losses of wetland habitats, and the wetland habitats of bar-built estuaries continue to be threatened by further development, pollution, and climate related changes including diminished streamflows and sea level rise. Given this loss and threat we developed a California Rapid Assessment Method (CRAM) to assess the condition of California's bar-built estuaries. CRAM uses visual indicators to accurately reflect current wetland condition with regards to buffer habitat, hydrology, physical complexity, plant diversity and structure, and landscape influences. Here we validate this method by comparing results of CRAM for bar-built estuaries to other accepted measures of wetland condition that we simultaneously collected with CRAM including vegetative surveys, water nutrient levels, and GIS landscape scale measures of stress for 32 sites throughout California. CRAM correlated well with each of these three independent methods of assessing condition. Notably, the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) number of natives metric significantly correlated with CRAM Index and all Attribute scores. The strong correlations of CRAM to nutrient levels is particularly important considering the documentation of the negative impact of nutrients on fish populations, the use of bar-built estuaries by juveniles of commercially important species, and the nursery role of bar-built estuaries for maintaining imperiled populations of species such as steelhead. GIS measured percent impervious, percent agriculture, and percent dams all correlated well with expected CRAM Attribute scores at appropriate watershed scales relative to the area of inference for each CRAM metric. Further, CRAM for bar-built estuaries works well throughout California's diversity of environmental conditions and regardless of geography, timing, or whether the bar was open or closed during the survey. We hope that the availability of CRAM combined with available data repositories will enable local, state, and federal decision makers to better manage, restore, and conserve valuable bar-built estuaries in the face of continual threats like development, drought, and sea level rise.
- Heady, Clark, O’Connor, Clark, Endris, Ryan, Stoner-Duncan