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- Temporal changes in marine environments in the Antarctic Peninsula area during the 1994/95 austral summer
- To reveal the temporal changes in Antarctic marine environments during the 1994/95 austral summer, oceanographic surveys were carried out in the Antarctic Peninsula area by Germany, Japan, Korea, and the USA. Five oceanographic stations at 15 nautical mile intervals were selected north of Elephant Island along 55°W; water temperature, salinity, nutrients, phytoplankton, krill and other zooplankton, and acoustic backscatter were sampled by similar sampling protocols. The transect was surveyed six times during the austral summer, from early December 1994 to late February 1995. The major findings from this time-series were : 1) The north/south position of the oceanic frontal zone north of Elephant Island along 55°W varied by 15 nautical miles; the northeasterly current associated with this front, determined by geostrophy, varied in strength depending on position of the front; 2) Most chl-a was concentrated in the upper 50m above or near the pycnocline. Surface chl-a concentrations ranged from 0.5mg/m^3 to >3.5mg/m^3. Peak chl-a (3.62mg/m^3) was found in the surface water during 18 February 1995. 3) Krill spawning during the 1994/95 season was early, extensive and apparently successful compared to previous years; and 4) Taxa other than krill may have contributed substantially to the observed acoustic backscattering.
- Kim, Siegel, Hewitt, Naganobu, Demer, Ichii, Kang, Kawaguchi, Loeb, Amos, Chung, Holm-Hansen, Lee, Silva, Stein
- Towable instrumentation for use with a hand-deployed Remotely Operated Vehicle
- A new class of small, hand-deployable underwater vehicles is playing an increasingly important role in oceanographic science. Due to the small nature of these vehicles, traditional incorporation of oceanographic instrumentation into a vehicle's body can result in a device too massive or cumbersome to deployed by hand. In this paper, we present a towed instrument package, FATTI, as an alternative means of sensor integration for small underwater vehicles, specifically for the Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) SCINI. The flexibly attached instrument package is comprised of a 120 kHz scientific echosounder and fluorometer, and was deployed in the McMurdo Sound, Antarctica to map the spatial and temporal dynamics of krill, fishes, and phytoplankton. The tow package proved modular and fieldable, and performed over 100 dives during the 2012/13 and 2014/15 Antarctic field seasons.
- Barker, Kim, Saenz, Osborne, Daly
- The ARTEMIS under-ice AUV docking system
- The ARTEMIS docking system demonstrates autonomous docking capability applicable to robotic exploration of sub-ice oceans and sub-glacial lakes on planetary bodies, as well as here on Earth. In these applications, melted or drilled vertical access shafts restrict vehicle geometry as well as the in-water infrastructure that may be deployed. The ability of the vehicle to return reliably and precisely to the access point is critical for data return, battery charging, and/or vehicle recovery. This paper presents the mechanical, sensor, and software components that make up the ARTEMIS docking system, as well as results from field deployment of the system to McMurdo Sound, Antarctica in the austral spring of 2015. The mechanical design of the system allows the vehicle to approach the dock from any direction and to pitch up after docking for recovery through a vertical access shaft. It uses only a small volume of in-water equipment and may be deployed through a narrow vertical access shaft. The software of the system reduces position estimation error with a hierarchical combination of dead reckoning, acoustic aiding, and machine vision. The system provides critical operational robustness, enabling the vehicle to return autonomously and precisely to the access shaft and latch to the dock with no operator input.
- Kimball, Clark, Scully, Richmond, Flesher, Lindzey, Harman, Huffstutler, Lawrence, Lelievre, Moor, Pease, Siegel, Winslow, Blankenship, Doran, Kim, Schmidt, Stone