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- Biology of the White Shark (Carcharodon carcharias) in Aquaria
- Since 2004, the Monterey Bay Aquarium, California, has displayed six juvenile white sharks, Carcharodon carcharias (Linnaeus, 1758), in the 3,800 m3 Outer Bay exhibit. Upon capture, the sharks (132 - 164 cm total length (TL) and 19.6 - 47.0 kg body mass (BM)) were held in a 13,800 m3 ocean pen to initiate feeding prior to transport. Oxygen consumption rates of free-swimming C. carcharias during transports were analyzed, yielding one of the highest reported mass-specific muscle oxygen consumptions (MO2) for any shark species (246 ± 13 mg O2/kg/h). While on display (70 - 198 days), four of the C. carcharias fed consistently at a daily ration of 747 ± 46 g, or 1.62 ± 0.15% BM/day. One shark did not feed and was released after 11 days; another shark fed intermittently and was released after 55 days, but died immediately post-release. Mean mass growth rate for C. carcharias at the Monterey Bay Aquarium was 71.6 ± 8.2 kg/yr, with a corresponding mean dietary gross conversion efficiency of 27.1 ± 3.8%. The mean length growth rate (64.9 ± 8.5 cm/yr), was approximately twice the rate estimated from a published von Bertalanffy growth function. All C. carcharias were fitted with pop-up archival satellite tags upon release, which provided evidence of post-release survivorship.
- Ezcurra, Lowe, Mollet, Ferry, Murray, O’Sullivan
- Captive biology of the pelagic stingray, Dasyatis violacea (Bonaparte, 1832),
- Pelagic stingrays, Dasyatis violacea, were collected in southern California in summer-autumn 1994-97. The smallest, 40-45 cm disc width (DW) and 2 kg, were estimated to approach age two. In captive growth and feeding experiments from March 1995 to August 2000, the largest male reached 68 cm DW and 12 kg at estimated age 7 years, and the largest female reached 96 cm DW and 49 kg at estimated age 9 years. The growth data could be fitted with both Gompertz and von Bertalanffy growth functions, but the former produced more reasonable values for size at birth, maximum size, and longevity. Consumption of squid was 6-7% of body mass (BM) per day for juveniles 2 years old and decreased to 1.25% BM day-1 for adults. Food intake for adults was seasonal, with 2 cycles per year with a maximum of ∼2.0% and a minimum of 1.0-0.5% BM day-1 from July to October 1998. The data for gross conversion efficiency (K1, based on energy values), collected at 20°C with daily feeding to satiation, could be fitted with a linear regression in the estimated mean age range of 3-6 years (K1 = 0.37 - 0.055 Age)., Cited By (since 1996):42, Fish and Fisheries, CODEN: AJMFA, ,
- Mollet, Ezcurra, O'Sullivan