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- Synthesis of iron fertilization experiments: From the iron age in the age of enlightenment,
- Comparison of eight iron experiments shows that maximum Chl a, the maximum DIC removal, and the overall DIC/Fe efficiency all scale inversely with depth of the wind mixed layer (WML) defining the light environment. Moreover, lateral patch dilution, sea surface irradiance, temperature, and grazing play additional roles. The Southern Ocean experiments were most influenced by very deep WMLs. In contrast, light conditions were most favorable during SEEDS and SERIES as well as during IronEx-2. The two extreme experiments, EisenEx and SEEDS, can be linked via EisenEx bottle incubations with shallower simulated WML depth. Large diatoms always benefit the most from Fe addition, where a remarkably small group of thriving diatom species is dominated by universal response of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. Significant response of these moderate (10-30 μm), medium (30-60 μm), and large (>60 μm) diatoms is consistent with growth physiology determined for single species in natural seawater. The minimum level of "dissolved" Fe (filtrate < 0.2 μm) maintained during an experiment determines the dominant diatom size class. However, this is further complicated by continuous transfer of original truly dissolved reduced Fe(II) into the colloidal pool, which may constitute some 75% of the "dissolved" pool. Depth integration of carbon inventory changes partly compensates the adverse effects of a deep WML due to its greater integration depths, decreasing the differences in responses between the eight experiments. About half of depth-integrated overall primary productivity is reflected in a decrease of DIC. The overall C/Fe efficiency of DIC uptake is DIC/Fe ∼ 5600 for all eight experiments. The increase of particulate organic carbon is about a quarter of the primary production, suggesting food web losses for the other three quarters. Replenishment of DIC by air/sea exchange tends to be a minor few percent of primary CO2 fixation but will continue well after observations have stopped. Export of carbon into deeper waters is difficult to assess and is until now firmly proven and quite modest in only two experiments. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union., Cited By (since 1996):271, Oceanography, Art. No.: C09S16, , , Downloaded from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2004JC002601/pdf (16 June 2014).
- de Baar, Boyd, Coale, Landry, Tsuda, Assmy, Bakker, Bozec, Barber, Brzezinski, Buesseler, Boyé, Croot, Gervais, Gorbunov, Harrison, Hiscock, Laan, Lancelot, Law, Levasseur, Marchetti, Millero, Nishioka, Nojiri, van Oijen, Riebesell, Rijkenberg, Saito, Takeda, Timmermans, Veldhuis, Waite, Wong
- Southern Ocean Iron Enrichment Experiment,
- The availability of iron is known to exert a controlling influence on biological productivity in surface waters over large areas of the ocean and may have been an important factor in the variation of the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide over glacial cycles. The effect of iron in the Southern Ocean is particularly important because of its large area and abundant nitrate, yet iron-enhanced growth of phytoplankton may be differentially expressed between waters with high silicic acid in the south and low silicic acid in the north, where diatom growth may be limited by both silicic acid and iron. Two mesoscale experiments, designed to investigate the effects of iron enrichment in regions with high and low concentrations of silicic acid, were performed in the Southern Ocean. These experiments demonstrate iron's pivotal role in controlling carbon uptake and regulating atmospheric partial pressure of carbon dioxide., Cited By (since 1996):316, Oceanography, CODEN: SCIEA, ,
- Coale, Johnson, Chavez, Buesseler, Barber, Brzezinski, Cochlan, Millero, Falkowski, Bauer, Wanninkhof, Kudela, Altabet, Hales, Takahashi, Landry, Bidigare, Wang, Chase, Strutton, Friederich, Gorbunov, Lance, Hilting, Hiscock, Demarest, Hiscock, Sullivan, Tanner, Gordon, Hunter, Elrod, Fitzwater, Jones, Tozzi, Koblizek, Roberts, Herndon, Brewster, Ladizinsky, Smith, Cooper, Timothy, Brown, Selph, Sheridan, Twining, Johnson