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- Temporal changes in marine environments in the Antarctic Peninsula area during the 1994/95 austral summer
- To reveal the temporal changes in Antarctic marine environments during the 1994/95 austral summer, oceanographic surveys were carried out in the Antarctic Peninsula area by Germany, Japan, Korea, and the USA. Five oceanographic stations at 15 nautical mile intervals were selected north of Elephant Island along 55°W; water temperature, salinity, nutrients, phytoplankton, krill and other zooplankton, and acoustic backscatter were sampled by similar sampling protocols. The transect was surveyed six times during the austral summer, from early December 1994 to late February 1995. The major findings from this time-series were : 1) The north/south position of the oceanic frontal zone north of Elephant Island along 55°W varied by 15 nautical miles; the northeasterly current associated with this front, determined by geostrophy, varied in strength depending on position of the front; 2) Most chl-a was concentrated in the upper 50m above or near the pycnocline. Surface chl-a concentrations ranged from 0.5mg/m^3 to >3.5mg/m^3. Peak chl-a (3.62mg/m^3) was found in the surface water during 18 February 1995. 3) Krill spawning during the 1994/95 season was early, extensive and apparently successful compared to previous years; and 4) Taxa other than krill may have contributed substantially to the observed acoustic backscattering.
- Kim, Siegel, Hewitt, Naganobu, Demer, Ichii, Kang, Kawaguchi, Loeb, Amos, Chung, Holm-Hansen, Lee, Silva, Stein
- Effects of sea-ice extent and krill or salp dominance on the Antarctic food web,
- Krill (Euphausia superba) provide a direct link between primary producers and higher trophic levels in the Antarctic marine food web. The pelagic tunicate Salpa thompsoni can also be important during spring and summer through the formation of extensive and dense blooms. Although salps are not a major dietary item for Antarctic vertebrate predators, their blooms can affect adult krill reproduction and survival of krill larvae. Here we provide data from 1995 and 1996 that support hypothesized relationships between krill, salps and region-wide sea-ice conditions. We have assessed salp consumption as a proportion of net primary production, and found correlations between herbivore densities and integrated chlorophyll-a that indicate that there is a degree of competition between krill and salps. Our analysis of the relationship between annual sea-ice cover and a longer time series of air temperature measurements indicates a decreased frequency of winters with extensive sea-ice development over the last five decades. Our data suggest that decreased krill availability may affect the levels of their vertebrate predators. Regional warming and reduced krill abundance therefore affect the marine food web and krill resource management., Cited By (since 1996):361, Antarctica, Invertebrates, CODEN: NATUA, ,
- Loeb, Siegel, Holm-Hansen, Hewitt, Fraser, Trivelpiece, Trivelpiece