Sedimentation in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica: A disturbance mechanism for benthic invertebrates,
A slumping event that occurred on permanent transect lines from 12- to 30- m depth located at Arrival Heights, McMurdo Sound, Antarctica in 1993, provided an opportunity to examine the effects of sediment-mediated disturbance on the benthic invertebrate fauna. The disturbance had a particularly significant impact on the soft coral Alcyonium paessleri, which resulted in 84% colony mortality downslope from the slump site compared to an average annual mortality rate of 14% on control transects. In contrast, anchor ice at the same site accounted for removal of 5% of the population in 1992. Laboratory experiments with A. paessleri colonies under conditions of periodic sediment resuspension indicate that the soft corals are susceptible to this form of disturbance. Our observations suggest they are capable of shedding fine silt in the laboratory, which might ex-plain the presence of A. paessleri in soft-sediment sites around McMurdo Sound. However, scarring by larger gravel in laboratory assays was slow to heal and may account for much of the colony mortality we observed. Several invertebrate-barren rocky benthic regions in McMurdo Sound were suggestive of historical slumping events. Given the removal of the smaller grain size sediments from these areas - a typically slow process it appears these communities are slow to recover. The long-term effects of sedimentation on the benthic communities are unknown, but the impact on A. paessleri, one of the most common and fastest growing species, suggests this disturbance mechanism could lead to significant restructuring of these communities., Cited By (since 1996):13, Invertebrates, CODEN: POBID, ,
Material picked from large collection of coralline algae
Trawl F-1; sample 14/28; Periphyla jellies
Variability of upper ocean thermohaline structure during a MJO event from DYNAMO aircraft observations
This paper reports upper ocean thermohaline structure and variability observed during the life cycle of an intense Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) event occurred in the southern tropical Indian Ocean (14°S-Eq, 70°E-81°E). Water column measurements for this study were collected using airborne expendable probes deployed from NOAA's WP-3D Orion aircraft operated as a part of Dynamics of MJO field experiment conducted during November-December, 2011. Purpose of the study is twofold; (1) to provide a statistical analysis of the upper ocean properties observed during different phases of MJO and, (2) to investigate how the upper ocean thermohaline structure evolved in the study region in response to the MJO induced perturbation. During the active phase of MJO, mixed layer depth (MLD) had a characteristic bimodal distribution. Primary and secondary modes were at ∼ 34 m and ∼ 65 m respectively. Spatial heterogeneity of the upper ocean response to the MJO forcing was the plausible reason for bimodal distribution. Thermocline and isothermal layer depth deepened respectively by 13 m and 19 m from the suppressed through the restoring phase of MJO. Thicker (> 30 m) barrier layers were found to occur more frequently in the active phase of MJO, associated with convective rainfalls. Additionally, the water mass analysis indicated that, in the active phase of this MJO event the sub-surface was dominated by Indonesian throughflow, nonetheless intrusion of Arabian Sea high saline water was also noted near the equator.
Trade-offs between reproduction and health in free-ranging African striped mice
Energy is limited and must be allocated among competing life-history traits. Reproduction is considered one of the most energetically demanding life-history stages. Therefore, the amount of energy an individual invests in reproduction might carry fitness costs through reduced energy allocation to other activities such as health maintenance. We investigated whether reproduction impacts health in the seasonally breeding African striped mouse (Rhabdomys pumilio). We measured health in individuals that reproduced (breeders) and individuals that did not reproduce (their adult offspring) and tested whether: (1) breeders’ health before reproduction was similar to that of their offspring (representing a baseline); (2) breeders’ health deteriorated after reproduction; (3) breeders’ health after reproduction was worse than that of their offspring. We collected blood samples from 12 breeding females and 11 breeding males both at the onset and at the end of the breeding season and from 12 adult daughters and 11 adult sons that did not reproduce at the end of the breeding season. Health was assessed using serum biochemistry analysis with VetScan Abaxis. Breeders differed considerably in their health before and after reproduction, particularly in parameters associated with digestion (lower amylase in males), metabolism (lower albumin, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine and glucose), osmoregulation (lower potassium and phosphorous in females) and immunity (higher globulin and altered alanine aminotransferase). Our results suggest that with the onset of breeding striped mice shifted their energy allocation from maintaining health to reproduction, indicating that investment into reproduction carries significant health costs.